Pañcāṅga refers to the five limbs of time. The quality of time is defined by the pañcāṅga and these are ruled by the pañca devatā – Sūrya (agni), Durgā (jala), Gaṇeśa (pṛthvi), Rudra (vāyu) and Viṣṇu (ākāśa). The knowledge associated with these five limbs of time are symbolised by the five heads of Śiva (pañcānana) – Aghora (agni), Vāmadeva (jala), Sadyojāta (pṛthvi), Tatpuruṣa (vāyu) and Iśāna (ākāśa).

The head refers to understanding and knowledge coming from lights – Sun and Moon.

Vāra Weekday Agni Solar day Sun
Nakṣatra Constellation Vāyu Lunar Day Moon
Tithi Moon Phase Jala Luni-solar day Sun – Moon
Karaṇa ½ Moon Phase Pṛthvi Earth day (Sun – Moon) ÷2
Ākāśa   Ākāśa Yoga day Sun + Moon

This is the first video lecture on Pañcāṅga.